In complex vertebrates, including humans, the amygdalae perform primary roles in the formation and storage of memories associated with emotional events. Research indicates that, during fear conditioning, sensory stimuli reach the basolateral complexes of the amygdalae, particularly the lateral nuclei, where they form associations with memories of the stimuli. …
Memories of emotional experiences imprinted in reactions of synapses in the lateral nuclei elicit fear behavior through connections with the central nucleus of the amygdalae and the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BNST). The central nuclei are involved in the genesis of many fear responses, including freezing (immobility), tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), increased respiration, and stress-hormone release. Damage to the amygdalae impairs both the acquisition and expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning, a form of classical conditioning of emotional responses.
As long as there is consensus within the discipline, normal science continues. Over time, progress in normal science may reveal anomalies, facts that are difficult to explain within the context of the existing paradigm. While usually these anomalies are resolved, in some cases they may accumulate to the point where normal science becomes difficult and where weaknesses in the old paradigm are revealed. Kuhn refers to this as a crisis. Crises are often resolved within the context of normal science. However, after significant efforts of normal science within a paradigm fail, science may enter the third phase, that of revolutionary science, in which the underlying assumptions of the field are reexamined and a new paradigm is established. After the new paradigm’s dominance is established, scientists return to normal science, solving puzzles within the new paradigm.
Keynes, TV, Max and Guthrie are sitting on a bench reading. Except Max who is just staring and drinking a soda.
Panel 1. A giant poof! appears in front of all them.
Panel 2. A Jesus looking guy is standing in front of the four of them. They all look up at him.
Robed Guy: As it was foretold, humanity, I have come to bring truth to a fallen world.
Background: Woo! Woo! Woo!
Panel 3. In the foreground, an ambulance is screeching to a halt.
Robed Guy: I bring peace.
Panel 4. The ambulance is open from behind. Two guys have a straigtjacket around the robed guy. Woody has gotten up but the other three are still seated.
Guthrie: Wait! He appeared out of thin air. What if he is the messiah?
Panel 5. The ambulance is flying away. Guthrie is standing and watching it go. The others are seated. TV looks puzzled.
Keynes: Don't be foolish, Guthrie. There's no savior.
Max: Just some nut.